2020-02-16 · 8 min read
方法 译文

Image by Gerd Altmann from Pixabay

原文:How to Learn Using Technology

作者:Stephen Downes

Learning with technology is different from learning with textbooks or learning with classroom instruction. In these, the focus is on understanding and remembering. It is content based. The learning objective is defined as mastery of this body of knowledge.


Learning with technology, by contrast, is outcome based. It is defined in terms of skills or competencies, as how to achieve a certain outcome using technology as a tool. There’s a distinctive way to learn using technology. Here are the steps.


Identify what you are trying to do. What problem are you trying to solve? What project are you trying to complete? This could be anything from fixing a flat tire to building a web site. It may be a very large project, or it might be one narrow objective. It may be self-defined, or it may be part of your education or work.


Define what success looks like. Professionals talk of ‘key performance indicators’ (KPIs) as evidence of a successful outcome. Can you inflate the tire to 600 kPa? Did ten people visit your web site today? How would you measure these?

义成功是怎样的。**专业人士把「关键绩效指标」(key performance indicators, KPI)作为成功结果的凭据。你可以给轮胎充气到 600kPa 吗?今天有十几个人访问你的网站吗?你如何量化这些指标?

Look for examples of people doing what you want to do. You might not know how to fix a flat tire or to build a web site. Look for examples of people who do know. Watch them in person. If you can’t, search for videos.


Look for how it was done. Note what tools they use, how they apply them, and how they test to see if they have been successful. If you are building a website, look at their website source code. Look for articles describing how they do it, and look for videos showing this work.

**寻找方法。**记下使用的什么工具,如何应用它们以及如何检查是否成功。 如果要构建网站,请查看网站源代码。 寻找描述工具原理的文章和视频。

Practice doing what they’re doing. Go beyond passive learning. Theoretical knowledge is not enough. Take the tools in hand and attempt the same outcome. Repair that flat tire! Build a website people can visit!

**尝试练习。**超越被动学习。 理论知识还不够。 手持工具并尝试相同的结果。 修理轮胎! 搭建一个可以访问的网站!

Get authentic practice. Use real environments if you can, but if you can’t, use virtual environments. Solve real problems. Use real-world problems. What tools do experts use to practice? Watch for these tools when looking at examples and then practice using these tools yourself.

**获得真实的实践。**如果可以的话,在真实环境中练习;如果不能,就使用虚拟环境。 解决真实问题,使用真实世界里的问题。 专业人士使用哪些工具进行练习? 在查看示例时要注意这些工具,然后自己练习使用这些工具。

Look for the theory behind the practice. Sometimes people speak of ‘theorizing’ a discipline, or of ‘building a mental model’, and this is that they mean. Look at the process, not just the outcome.

**寻找实践背后的理论。**有时人们会说“对理论进行理论化”或“建立心理模型(mental model)”,这就是他们的意思。着眼于过程,而不仅仅是结果。

Look for patterns that can be applied. Can you read signs or signals as clues? How are the tools used? Where do they do their work (and where do they avoid working?) How do people draw conclusions about their work, and what sort of evidence do they use? How do they plan for change?

**寻找可以应用的模式。**您可以阅读标志或信号作为线索吗? 工具如何使用? 他们在哪里工作(以及在哪里避免工作?)人们如何得出关于他们工作的结论,以及他们使用什么样的证据? 他们如何计划变革?

It’s a lot like learning a language. When you are learning a technology, you are trying to become fluent in this language, so you can apply it in new circumstances.


Reflect on your own performance. What was the difference between success and failure? Think back to what you did, study the product you created, or perhaps make a video. Compare it with the models that were successful. Theory can guide you here to know where to look for differences.


Work with others. Share your products or your videos with others and get their feedback. They will be able to see things you can’t see for yourself. Over time, your videos will become the examples other people use as they begin their own learning. You are giving back to the community that helped you, and everyone learns more.


Repeat. We rarely learn how to do something in just one try. We rarely become proficient in something without repetition. And we often forget things we have learned if we do not apply them on a regular basis. Learning is never truly complete. Even if you are successful, you can find ways to achieve the same outcome more effectively, more efficiently, and more productively.